Scientific researchers who actually are getting paid to produce results are revealing information that may or may not be pertinent to the world at large, depending on the general point of view. There is one study that has been conducted which has gone into the details of the geologic situation of The Hawaiian Islands, as they relate to their positioning upon the planet. More precise examinations delve into reviews of how the geologic mechanics of the island of Oahu are showing that it is succumbing to it’s own tectonic activities!
Research from recent studies involved with programs that include Brigham Young University and The United States Geological Survey are showing that major mountains on Oahu eventually will reduce to ground-level basins. It seems that elevated tidal surges will lead to gradual rates of erosion upon the rock surface of Oahu. After years and years of degradation by the continuous water flow, the island eventually will dissolve!
The major mountain range of Oahu, Waianae, and it’s major peak, Koolau, are supposed to diminish to flat, island-like surfaces! They will have dissolved because of increased levels of water upon the island chain, also. Researchers have identified that more than one type of rock comprises The Hawaiian Islands, and that will be a determining factor in identifying how the levels of erosion will affect the rates at which the land levels and mountains are eroding.
Whereas the rock surface of Oahu is eroding, the island itself is projected to expand. As the plate tectonic factors of the planet follow through, the island will grow for a continued 1.5 million years, succumbing to groundwater, then reducing to a lesser area. Studies currently are being done by students at The University of Hawai’i, and they have been published within Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. So, the conclusion might be that Oahu will have reduced in altitude, yet it will have increased it’s overall area!
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Every so often, throughout the existence of our planet, something similar to a cleansing event takes place. There have been documented episodes within the history of Earth when the majority of species around the planet have gone extinct at seemingly same points of time. These identified periods of planetary purification have come to be called extinction events.
Ther have been five mass extinction events throughout the course of Earth’s existence. The first mass extinction event occurred at an estimated 440 million years ago. The Ordovician-Silurian Extinction happened when ice levels rose around the planet, trapping areas of fresh water from the access of living creatures. The increase of ice caused sea levels to drop, leading to losses of life throughout many usually oceanic regions of Earth.
The Late Devonian Extinction happened at an estimate of 360 million years passed, when nearly seventy percent of marine life was eliminated. This was alleged to have happened over a course of twenty million years. An extended portion of this extinction period extended to areas between 100,000 years and 300,000 years, eliminating extreme amounts of sea life.
The Permian-Triassic Extinction is being labeled as the greatest of the Earth’s most devastating dying episodes. This was 250 million years in Earth’s past. Ninety percent of all life died at that time. Speculations include theories of an asteroid impact, extreme volcanic eruptions, and a combinaton of both of these deadly occurrences. Over ninety percent of life on Earth died within this extinction event.
It was 200 million years in the past when The Triassic-Jurassic Extinction Event took place. Here, roughly twenty percent of marine life vanished, along with most extreme-sized amphibians, most near-mammals, and all of the pre-dinosaurs that are called archosaurs. It is speculated that this extinction event occurred because of an asteroid impact to Earth, yet no underground evidence has been excavated to prove this theory.
Possibly the most recognized of all of the extinction events is The Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction, also called the K/T Extinction Event. This is the extinction event that occurred sixty-five million years ago, leading to the disappearance of the dinosaurs. The Chixulub impact site off of The Yucatán Peninsula is where an asteroid crater currently exists, dating back to the general time when all dinosaurs, along with half of all other species on Earth, were eliminated.
Some scientists are speculating that we are on the verge of entering a sixth extinction period. There remains the underground chatter of asteroid impact within the next six to twelve months. Yet, as that seems unlikely, it remains necessary to examine the actual causes that could lead to such extreme life erasure and overall devastation to our Earth.
Much evidence is pointing toward humanity as the prime perpetrator of this point of planetary life privation. It is being stated with much scientific evidence, that the actions of human beings will have driven Earth to a point where she/it can no longer sustain life on a major scale. Warning signs are appearing blatantly, which include the depletion of the ozone layer, global warming, and currently excessive losses of animal and plant species. A poll that was given to biologists around the planet revealed that seventy percent of them believe that Earth currently is in the initial throes of a mass extinction period.
What do we do? What can we do? Suggestions, demands are being made that point toward the needs to handle the most obvious problems, first. This does include putting a handle on human-inflicted damages to Earth, along with creating restrictions to currently unchecked human activities that continue to ravage the planet. If actions are not made to correct contaminations, to patch the problems caused by pollution, and to stop our singular mindset of being the only items of significance to Earth, then we will fall easily into this sixth mass extinction period. Yet, beliefs must stand that we can transcend what is being projected, showing that we can put a stop to the actions that are wrecking our world, and that we can reverse all which can be reversed, so that our Earth will remain for generations of species that may exist within eons to come!
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From initial and arbitrary glances, it may indeed seem as if Venus is the twin sister planet to Earth. Both worlds are about the same sizes. They are in the generally same region of the solar system. Yet, the truth is that may be where all similarities end. She is a bad girl!
As the second orbiting world from The Sun, Venus is at an average of sixty-seven million miles away from our host star. It is the closest planet to our Earth. This planet’s proximity, and it’s heavy cloud covering, allow it to operate as a reflective object. Sunlight that glistens upon Venus shines off of the world, making it appear as a star in the night sky.
Some scientists speculate that Venus harbored life during it’s early ages. Whereas this world currently can have temperatures that reach up to 400° Fahrenheit, there are some speculations that depict Venus as being a much cooler planet. Studies are occurring currently, through the use of The Venus Express space orbiter. These examinations are attempting to show that Venus was once a world that held liquid water.
It was roughly four billion years ago when the worlds of our solar system cooled to assume their current states of being. It is at that time when astronomers and exobiologists are speculating that Venus was a world that harbored some forms of life. It is being suggested that this world was a more temperate place that even may have had water, which allowed for spme existence of prehistoric life forms.
Of course, this kind of life likely was microbial, and possibly some forms of plants. This thought stems from the suggestion that an early Venus was more Earth-like. It is speculated that Venus did have water in it’s early history. Water is the prime conduit for the creation and proliferation of life, as we recognize it, and an early Venus may have used it’s water to jumpstart initial forms of primitive organisms.
Any water that may have existed on Venus was boiled off of the planet very early in it’s history. This left the planet barren, and it thickened the world’s atmosphere. The increased pressure of the Venusian atmosphere lead to the world’s current state of runaway greenhouse effect. Now, the planet has a primarily carbon dioxide atmosphere, with an average surface temperature at roughly 900º Fahrenheit!
The atmospheric pressure on Venus is roughly 13,230 pounds per square inch. This is not a place where living things currently could stand up and move about, let alone live. Furthermore, the heat exerted by The Sun, interacting with Venus’ atmospheric pressure, is hot enough to melt lead!
So, if Venus is to be called Earth’s twin, then she is the evil twin. NOTHING can survive there, under the current conditions on the world. The cold truth about this excessively hot planet is that it’s true beauty may be only viewing it from an excessive distance, as it glistens in the night skies!
Images of the surface of Venus from Soviet Venera Space Probes.
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